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DAV CLASS 8 The Union Government: The Executive Social Science Question and Answers
Something to Know
A. Tick (✓) the correct option.
1. Who among the following is the Head of the Union Government?
Ans 1. (a) The Prime Minister
2. The Supreme Commander of India’s defence forces is—
Ans 2. (d) The President of India
3. Which one of the following statements is true?
Ans 3. (c) All the members of Rajya Sabha are entitled to vote in the Presidential election.
4. The President can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the advice of—
Ans 4. (d) The Prime Minister of India
5. In case of certain extraordinary situations, the President can sanction money to the government out of—
Ans 5. (b) Contingency fund
Ans. 1. (a), 2. (d), 3. (c), 4. (d), 5. (b)
B. Fill in the blanks.
1. In Parliamentary form of government, the two types of executives are nominal and real.
2. The process to remove the President of India is called impeachment.
3. The Union Council of Ministers is there to aid and advise the President of India.
4. Responsibility of all the ministers to defend their acts and decisions is called collective responsibility.
5. The President of India is elected by a Single Transferable vote system.
C. Write True or False for the following statements.
|1. The Union Executive comprises of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
|2. The President of India cannot be re-elected for a second term.
|3. All the elected members of Parliament and the State Legislative Assemblies elect the President of India.
|4. The imposition of emergency in a State is called President’s rule.
|5. The Chairman of Rajya Sabha must be a member of Rajya Sabha.
Ans. 1. False 2. False 3. True 4. True 5. False
D. Answer the following questions in brief.
1. Explain the judicial powers of the President of India.
Ans 1. Judicial powers of the President of India:
(i) The President appoints all the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts including the Chief Justice.
(ii) On appeal of mercy, the President has the power to reduce the sentence or grant pardon or amnesty.
(iii) He/She can change the death sentence or can postpone it also.
2. Explain the process of electing the President of India.
Ans 2. The President of India is elected indirectly by an electoral college consisting of only the elected members of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and Legislative Assemblies of the states. The election is held in accordance with the Single Transferable Vote System of Proportional Representation. Under this system, it is essential to secure the fixed quota of votes to get elected.
3. Differentiate between the real and the nominal executive of India.
Ans 3. The real executive is the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, whereas the President is the nominal executive because she/he is bound to act on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
4. How can the President of India be removed and on what grounds? Explain.
Ans 4. If the President of India violates the Constitution, he/she can be removed from the office by a resolution of impeachment which is passed by both the Houses of the Parliament by two-thirds majority of the total membership.
5. Describe the powers and functions of the Vice President of India.
Ans 5. Powers and functions of the Vice President of India:
(i) He/She is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha, conducts its proceedings and maintains the discipline and decorum of the House.
(a) Since the Vice President is not a member of the Rajya Sabha, he/she does not participate in voting in the House. But in case of a tie, he/she can exercise his casting vote.
(iii) When the office of the President falls vacant due to death, resignation or impeachment, he/she takes over as the officiating President till a fresh election is held. As officiating President, he/she exercises all the powers privileges, etc. of the President of India.
E. Answer the following questions.
1. How is the Union Council of Ministers appointed? Explain its main functions.
Ans 1. The Union Council of Ministers comprises of the Prime Minister, the Cabinet Ministers and the Ministers of State. The composition of the Council of Ministers starts with the appointment of the Prime Minister by the President of India. Other ministers are appointed afterwards by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. The main functions of the Council of Ministers:
(i) It frames internal and external policy of the country.
(ii) It takes decisions at the national and international levels.
(iii) It runs administration through various ministries, like Defence, Finance, Agriculture, Foreign Affairs, Health, etc.
(iv) The Council of Ministers also performs certain legislative functions like preparing and approving the annual budget and making laws.
2. List any five powers and functions of the Prime Minister of India.
Ans 2. The Prime Minister of India is the pivot and the entire administration revolves around him/her. He/she is the head of government and performs the following functions:
(i) Forms Council of Ministers.
(ii) Presides over the meeting of the Cabinet as well as the Council of Ministers.
(iii) Coordinate the working of various departments.
(iv) Advises the President to summon or prorogue the session or to dissolve the Lok Sabha before its term expires.
(v) Advises the President about important appointments like that of Chairman of UPSC, Auditor General of India, Ambassadors, etc.
(vi) Acts as a link between the President and the Cabinet.
3. Describe the legislative and financial powers of the President of India.
Ans 3. Legislative powers:
(i) He/She can summon, prorogue and address the two Houses of the Parliament. Every year, the first session of the Parliament begins with his/her address.
(ii) The President can dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry of its normal term if he/she is advised to do so by the Prime Minister.
(iii) No bill passed by both the Houses of the Parliament, becomes a law without his/her consent. Prior approval of the President is essential before a money bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha.
(i) The annual budget of the country is presented in the Parliament in the name of the President.
(ii) All money bills also require his/her approval before introducing them in the Lok Sabha.
(iii) He/She has the power to appoint members of the Finance Commission. In case, certain extraordinary situations arise, the President can sanction money to the government out of Contigency Fund to meet the situation.
4. Explain the three situations under which the President of India can proclaim Emergency.
Ans 4. The President of India declares an Emergency in the following situations:
(i) If the security of the country is threatened by war or external aggression or internal armed rebellion, the President can declare a state of emergency for the whole country.
(ii) If the government of a state is not being run in accordance with the Constitution, the President can declare emergency in that state. It is also called the Imposition of the President’s Rule in a state.
(iii) When the financial stability of the country is threatened, the President can declare a state of financial emergency.
5. Explain the following terms: (a) Coalition Government (b) Impeachment (c) Collective Responsibility (d) Parliamentary Form of Government (e) Electoral College
Ans 5. (a) Coalition Government: It is a government formed by an alliance of two or more political parties, usually when no single party gets a clear majority in a legislature.
(b) Impeachment: The process to remove the President of India is called impeachment. If a President violates the Constitution, he/she can be removed from office by a resolution of impeachment which is passed by both the Houses of Parliament by two-third majority of the total membership.
(c) Collective Responsibility: This means that all the Ministers together are answerable to the Parliament for any decision taken by the Cabinet. All of them swim or sink together.
(d) Parliamentary Form of Government: The form of government which is answerable to the Parliament or the Union legislature.
(e) Electoral College: It consists of the elected members of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of the state.