Class 10 Life Process Biology Important Differences

If you are looking for an important comparison and difference between confusing topics you are in the right place. In this post we have discussed all important biology differences which are quite confusing for students.

Class 10 Biology Important Life process

Autotrophic NutritionHeterotrophic Nutrition
Food. It is self manufactured.Food is obtained readymade from outside.
External Energy. An external source of energy is required for synthesis of food. Food is obtained readymade from outsideAn external source of energy is not required. The required energy is present in the food obtained from outside.
Inorganic Substances. They constitute the raw materials for manufacturing food.Inorganic substances are not much required
Digestion. It is absent.An external or internal digestion is required for conversion of complex organic materials into simpler and soluble ones.
Chlorophyll. It is present for trapping light energyChlorophyll is absent.
Status. Organisms performing autotrophic nutrition function as producers. Examples. Green plants, some bacteria, some protistsOrganisms performing heterotrophic nutrition function as consumers. Animals, many protists and monerans

Comparisons and Differences between Saprophyte and Parasite

Mode of Nutrition. Nutrition is got from organic remains.Nutrition is obtained from another living organism called HOST
External Digestion. Saprophytes perform external digestion in order to solubilise the food materials.External digestion is absent.
Sucking Organs. They are absent.Many parasites possess sucking organs.
Ingestion. Only digested food is taken.The ingested food can be predigested, semi-digested or undigested.
Disease. It does not cause disease.It often produces disease or ailment in the host.
Food. it may spoil foodIt robs the host of food.
Ecological Role. It has an ecological role in scavenging the earth of dead organic matter and release of trapped biogeochemicalsA useful ecological role is absent. At times it may spread a disease in epidemic form.

Comparisons and Differences between Photosynthetic/Holophytic Nutrition and Holozoic Nutrition

Photosynthetic/Holophytic NutritionHolozoic Nutrition
Occurrence. It is found in green plants, some protozoans and bacteria.It is found in animals and some protozoan protists.
Raw Materials. Only inorganic raw materials are taken from outsideReadymade food of organic materials is taken from outside.
Type. It is absorptive type of nutrition.It is ingestive type of nutrition.
Organic Food. It is self manufactured.Organic food is got from outside.
Chlorophyll. It is present for trapping light energy.Chlorophyll is absent.
Sunlight. Sunlight is essential for this type of nutrition.Sunlight has no role for this type of nutrition
Examples. Grass, Mango, Wheat, SunflowerExamples. Humans, Deer, Lion, Cockroach.

Comparisons and Differences between Ingestion and Egestion

Process. Ingestion is the process of taking in of food.It is the throwing of faecal matter out of the body.
Steps. It involves catching, holding and putting the food into body through mouth.It involves piling up of faecal matter and its elimination through anus, cloaca or other opening.
Components. Ingested food consists of both digestible and indigestible matter.Faecal matter consists only of indigestible materials.

Comparisons and Differences Between Pepsin and Trypsin

Component. It is component of gastric juice.It is component of pancreatic juice.
Inactive State. It is produced in the inactive state of pepsinogen.Trypsin is produced in the inactive state called trypsinogen
Activation. The enzyme is activated by HCI of gastric juice.The enzyme is activated by enterokinase of intestinal juice.
Region of Activity. It is active in stomach.It is active in duodenum and jejunum.
Medium. It functions in acidic medium.It functions in alkaline medium.

Comparisons and Differences between Respiration and Combustion

Cellular. It is a cellular process which occurs inside living cells.CombustionIt is a non-cellular process.
Temperature. Temperature does not rise above 40 °C.Combustion produces temperature of 600-2000 °C.
Control. It is under biological control.It is an uncontrolled process.
Steps. It is a multistep reaction.It is single step reaction.
Enzymes. A number of enzymes take part in reaction.No enzyme is involved.
Energy. It is released in small packets in several steps.It is released in large amount in one step.
Heat and Light. About 50% of energy is liberated as heat. Light is not produced.Whole energy is produced as heat and light.
Storage of Energy. 50% of liberated energy is stored as ATP molecules.There is no storage of energy.
Intermediates. Several intermediates are producedNo intermediates are produced.
Oxidation. It is terminal where oxygen combines with hydrogen of reduced coenzymes.Oxidation is direct where every oxidisable atom is oxidised without relation to presence of hydrogen.

Comparisons and Differences between Photosynthesis and Respiration

Metabolism. Photosynthesis is a synthetic or anabolic process.Respiration is a breakdown or catabolic process.
Energy Relations. It is an endergonic process.It is an exergonic process.
Energy Conversion. It converts light energy into chemical energy.It liberates chemical energy which is used as such or changed into other forms of energy.
Timing. Photosynthesis occurs during the daytime when light is available.Respiration occurs all the time.
Cells. It occurs only in green cells.It occurs in all types of living cells.
Carbon Dioxide. It absorbs carbon dioxide.Respiration liberates carbon dioxide.
Oxygen. Photosynthesis liberates oxygen.Respiration consumes oxygen.
Raw Materials. They are carbon dioxide and waterThey are glucose and oxygen.
End Products. They are glucose, other organic substances and oxygenEnd products are carbon dioxide and water
Weight. There is net gain of weight.There is net loss of weight.

Comparisons and Differences between Breathing and Respiration

Definition. Breathing is taking in of fresh air and giving out of foul air.It is oxidative breakdown of respiratory substrate.
Nature. It is a physical process.It is a biochemical process.
Energy. Breathing consumes energy.Respiration produces energy.
Enzymes. No enzymes are required.It is an enzyme mediated process.
Cellular. Breathing is an extra-cellular process.Respiration is an intracellular process.
Resemblance. Mode of breathing is different in different organisms.Mechanism of respiration is the same in all types of organisms.

Comparisons and Differences between Inhalation and Exhalation.

Action. Inhalation is bringing in of fresh air from outside.It is passing out of foul air to the outside.
Rib Cage. It is pushed outwardly and upwardlyIt is pulled inwardly and downwardly.
Diaphragm. It contracts and becomes nearly flat.It relaxes and becomes dome-shaped.
Thoracic Cavity. It increases in size.It decreases in size.
Air Pressure. Air pressure decreases in lungs.There is increase in air pressure in the lungs.
Respiratory Muscles. They contract to bring about inhalation.They relax to cause exhalation.
Type of Process. Inhalation is an active process.Exhalation is a passive process.
Result. Air rushes from outside and causes inflation of lungs.Air is expelled from lungs causing their deflation.
Oxygen. Inhaled air has an oxygen concentration of 20.84%.Exhaled air has an oxygen concentration of 15.7%.
Carbon Dioxide. Its concentration in inhaled air is 0.04%.Its concentration in exhaled air is 4.0%.

Comparisons and Differences between Respiration in Plant and Animals

Plant RespirationAnimals Respiration
Rate. Rate of respiration is slow.It is quite fast.
Respiratory Surface. Plants lack a respiratory surface.A respiratory surface is generally present.
Respiratory Organs. They are absent.They are commonly present.
Transport. A gas transport system is absent.A transport system is present to carry respiratory gases.
Anaerobic Respiration. Common product of anaerobic respiration is alcohol.Common product of anaerobic respiration is lactic acid
Oxygen. Most of the oxygen required is produced internally.It is obtained from outside.
Carbon Dioxide. Most of it is consumed internally.The whole of it is expelled out.

Comparisons and Differences between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic Respiration
Method. It is the common method of respirationIt occurs permanently only in a few organisms. In others it may occur as a temporary measure to overcome shortage of oxygen.
Steps. It is completed in 3 steps-glycolysis, Krebs cycle and terminal oxidation.There are two steps, glycolysis and anaerobic breakdown of pyruvic acid.
Oxygen. It requires oxygen.Oxygen is not required.
Breakdown. Respiratory substrate is completely broken down.Respiratory substrate is incompletely broken down.
End Products. They are inorganic.Atleast one end product is organic. Inorganic products may or may not be present.
Toxicity. End products show little toxicity.The organic end product is generally toxic.
Occurrence. It occurs partly in cytoplasm and partly in mitochondria.Anaerobic respiration is carried out entirely in cytoplasm. Mitochondria are not required.
E.T.C. An electron transport chain is required.ETC is not required.
Energy. In releases 686 kcal or 2870 kJ of energy per mole of glucose.Energy liberated is 36-50 kcal or 150-210 kJ per mole of glucose.
ATP. The liberated energy is used in forming 36-38 ATP molecules per mole of glucose.The liberated energy is used in synthesis of 2 ATP molecules.

Comparisons and Differences between RBC and WBC

Number. The number is 4.5-5.0 million/ml of blood.The number is 5000-8000/ml of blood.
Types. All the RBCs are of one type.WBCs are of five types.
Size. The size is about 7 um.The size is 8-15 um.
Form. RBCs are biconcave and circular.They are rounded to irregular in shape.
Nucleus. A nucleus is absent, i.e., RBCs are enucleate.WBCs are nucleated.
Cell Organelles. Most of the cell organelles degenerate during development.They retain all the cell organelles.
Haemoglobin. It is present.It is absent.
Function. They take part in transportation of most of oxygen and smaller quantities of carbon dioxide.They take part in phagocytosis of germs, dead cells and formation of antibodies.

Comparisons and Differences between Blood Plasma and Serum

Blood PlasmaSerum
Nature. It is the fluid part of blood.It is the fluid that comes out of a contracting blood clot.
Colour. Blood plasma is of yellow colour.Serum is nearly colourless.
Turbidity. It is turbid or cloudyTurbidity is absent.
Fibrinogen. It is present in the blood plasma.It is absent in serum.
Prothrombin. It contains prothrombin.Prothrombin is absent.
Clotting. It can clot.It is a consequence of clotting.

Comparisons and Differences between Artery and Vein

Direction of Flow. It carries blood from heart to an organ.It brings blood from an organ towards the heart.
Speed. Blood flow is rapid in artery.Blood flow is slow in vein.
Jerks. Blood flows with jerks.Blood flows smoothly.
Pressure. Blood flows under pressureThere is little pressure.
Internal Valves. They are absent.Internal valves are present to prevent back flow
Wall. It is thick and elastic.It is comparatively thinner and little elastic
Lumen. Narrow.Wide
Type of Blood. Artery carries oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries.Vein carries deoxygenated blood except pulmonary veins
Occurrence. It is deep seated.It is superficial
Collapsibility. Artery is not collapsible.Vein is collapsible.
Blood After Death. It does not contain blood after death.Vein is full of blood even after death.

Comparisons and Differences between Blood and Lymph

Colour. Blood is reddish in colour.Lymph is pale yellow in colour.
RBCs. It contains RBCs.RBCs are absent.
Blood Platelets. They are present.Blood platelets are absent.
Leucocytes. Leucocyte count is 5000-8000 per ml.Leucocytes count is low, 500 per ml mostly due to lymphocytes.
Flow. Blood flows rapidly.Flow of lymph is slow.
Direction. Blood flow is bidirectional, from heart to organs and organs to heart.Lymph flow is unidirectional, from tissues to the subclavian veins.

Comparisons and Differences between Xylem and Phloem

Tissue. Xylem is water or sap conducing plant tissue.It is food conducting plant tissue.
Living Cells. Xylem has only one type of living cells.It has three types of living cells.
Dead Cells. Xylem has three types of dead cells-fibres, tracheids and vessel elements.Phloem has only one type of dead cells, i.e., phloem fibres.
Conducting Elements. There are two types of conducting elements, tracheids and vessels.There are only one type of conducting elements, i.e. sieve tubes.
Septa. Vessels do not possess septa.Sieve tubes have porous septa called sieve plates.
Metabolic Inhibitors. Conduction is not influenced by metabolic inhibitors like heat, cold or poison.Conduction is inhibited by heat, cold and poison.
Pressure. Transport occurs due to presence of negative pressure.Transport takes place due to presence of positive pressure

Comparisons and Differences between Excretion and Osmoregulation

Function. It removes byproducts of metabolism called waste products,It maintains osmotic pressure of body fluids.
Protection. It protects the body from toxicity of waste products.It protects the body from adverse conditions present in external environment.
Elimination. It always involves elimination of waste products.Elimination of water and salts depends upon the internal conditions. There is elimination in case of excess water and salts. The same are retained in case of deficiency.

Ureter and Urethra

Number. There are two ureters.Urethra is single.
Position. It extends from hilus of kidney to urinary bladder.It extends from urinary bladder to an external opening
Conduction. It conducts urine through peristalsis.It conducts urine through force of contracting urinary bladder.
Sexes. Ureters are of the same size and conduct only urine in the two sexes.Urethra is short in females (4 cm) and long in males (20 cm). In males it conducts both urine and semen while in females it passes only urine.

Transport in Xylem and Phloem

Transport in XylemTransport in Phloem
Components. It consists of water and minerals.It consists of organic nutrients.
Direction. The movement is generally unidirectionalThe movement is multidirectional.
Force. It operates through creation of negative tension.It operates through creation of positive turgor.
Active Component. An active component is absent.An active component is present in the region of loading and unloading.
Metabolic Inhibitors. It is not influenced by metabolic inhibitorsPhloem transport is inhibited by metabolic inhibitors.
Channels. Tracheary elements are non- living.Phloem channels are made of living cells

Compare Alveoli in the lungs and Nephrons in the kidneys

Shape. They are rounded or polyhedral.They are elongated tubules,
Components. Alveoli are single entities.Each nephron has two components-Malpighian capsule and renal tubule. Renal tubule has three parts – PCT, loop of Henle and DCT.
Blood Capillaries. They are of one type and lie all over the alveoli.Blood capillaries form two patches-glomerulus and peritubular capillaries
Materials. They deal with respiratory gases.They deal with body fluids.
Function. Alveoli perform exchange of gases between blood and inhaled air.Nephrons bring about separation of waste products from blood.

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