In this post, we have shared Notes from Class 10 Chapter 7 Control and Coordination. Students are requested to go through the important topics of difference between to improve their understanding of the chapter.
Notes of Chapter 7 Control and Coordination for Class 10
Refer below to the important notes on biology chapter 7 control and coordination for class 10.
What are the Differences between Dendrites and Axons?
Size. They are short tapering processes.
They are long processes.
Number. A number of dendrites often develop from all around a cell body.
A single axon develops from a cell body.
Ends. The ends are tapering.
The ends bear knobbed branches called terminal arborisations.
Neurolemma. A covering of neurolemma is absent.
Neurolemma is present.
Inclusions. They contain both Nissl granules and neurofibrils.
Nissl granules are absent. Neurofibrils are present.
Impulse. They carry sensation or impulse to the cell body
They carry impulse away from the cell body.
What are the Differences between Sensory/Afferent Neuron and Motor/Efferent Neuron?
Conduction. It conducts impulses towards central nervous system.
It carries impulses away from central nervous system.
Information. It brings information from a receptor or sensory organ.
It takes information towards an effector organ.
Contact. It picks up information in the region of a dendrite terminal.
It hands over information by an axon terminal
What are the Differences between Reflex Action and Walking?
Origin. Reflex action is inborn and present in an individual right from birth.
It is acquired through learning.
Inheritance. It is inherited.
It is not inherited.
Control. It is automatic. An individual cannot control it.
It is under control of the cerebellum part of the brain.
Intensity. It cannot be changed.
It can be changed.
Value. It has survival and protective value
It has various functions, generally other than survival and protection.
What are the Differences between Cerebrum and Cerebellum?
Part. It is a part of fore brain.
It is part of hind brain.
Size. Cerebrum constitutes 80% of brain.
It constitutes 12.5% of brain.
Position. It forms the front, superior and lateral sides of the brain,
It lies in the posterior region of brain.
Components. Cerebrum is made of two parts called cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebellum has three parts, two lateral cerebellar hemispheres and one central vermis.
Cavities. It contains two cavities called lateral ventricles.
A cavity is nearly absent.
Seat. It is seat of intelligence and memory.
It coordinates muscular activity.
Control. Cerebrum controls intelligence, movements, speech, sight, smell, taste, hearing and other sensations.
Cerebellum maintains equilibrium of the body
Differences between Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves?
Origin. They develop from brain.
They arise from spinal cord.
Number. The number of cranial nerves is 12 pairs.
The number of spinal nerves is 31 pairs.
Nature. They can be sensory, motor or mixed.
All spinal nerves are mixed in nature.
Root. A cranial nerve develops from a single root.
It develops from two roots.
Ganglion. It is not associated with all cranial nerves
A ganglion occurs in the dorsal root of each spinal nerve.
What are the Differences between Nastic Movements and Tropic Movements?
Nature. They can be autonomic or paratonic, turgor or growth movements.
They are always paratonic growth movements.
Organs. The organs are flat or asymmetric.
They are generally cylindrical.
Direction. Movements are nondirectional.
The direction of movement is related to direction of stimulus.
Stimulus. It is generally diffused.
It is generally unilateral
What are the Differences between Growth Movements and Turgor Movements?
Movements of Variation/Turgor Movements (Nongrowth Movements)
Nature. There is differential or asymmetric growth that results in movements.
There are turgor changes that produce movements.
Size. The size of the organs increases.
There is no change in size.
Reversibility. The movements are permanent or irreversible.
The movements are temporary or reversible.
Turgor Cells. They are absent.
They are present. Changes in their turgor bring about movements.
Cause. The movements are often caused by unequal distribution of growth hormones.
The movements are caused by influx or efflux of K+ ions along with passage of water.
What are the Differences between Endocrine Glands and Exocrine Glands?
Ducts. The glands are devoid of ducts.
The glands possess ducts.
Isolation. They usually occur in isolation.
They do not occur in isolation.
Drainage. The glands pour the secretion into circulatory system.
The glands pour their secretion over the target either directly or through ducts.
Site. The target site is far away from its endocrine gland.
The target site is adjacent to the gland.
Secretion. Secretion consists of hormones or informational molecules.
The secretions are various- enzymes, mucus, excretory substances, lubricants.
What are the Differences between Endocrine System and Nervous Systems?
Passage of Information. It is through chemicals like hormones.
It is through electrochemical conduction. .
Sensory Receptors. Absent.
Rapidity. The system is comparatively slower.
The system is rapid.
Connection. The system is not connected to target sites directly.
The system is directly connected to every part under its control.
Response. The response is slow, of longer duration and produced by all the cells of target tissues.
The response is quick, of short duration and limited to those cells that are innervated.
Growth and Development. The system controls growth and development.
It has no role in growth and development.
What are the Differences between Estrogen and Progesterone?
Origin. It is produced by maturing ova.
It is formed by corpus luteum.
Function. It initiates and maintains sexual maturity.
It brings about growth and maintenance of uterine lining.
Pregnancy. It has no role in pregnancy.
Progesterone is essential for maintaining pregnancy.
Changes. Estrogen brings about changes in body contour, growth of breasts and pelvis.
The hormone helps in attachment of embryo to uterine wall, formation and maintenance of placenta and growth of mammary glands.
What are the Differences between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus?
Blood Sugar. Sugar level of blood is high.
Sugar level of blood is normal.
Glycosuria. There is excretion of sugar in urine.
Sugar is not excreted in urine.
Cause. It is due to deficiency of insulin.
It is caused by deficiency of ADH or antidiuretic hormone.
Urine Concentration. Urine has normal concentration
Urine is dilute.
What are the Differences between Involuntary Actions and Reflex Actions?
System. They involve autonomic nervous system.
They involve all parts of voluntary nervous system though they do not consult the will,
Activity. They are connected with functioning of internal body parts.
They are connected with emergency.
Divisions. The nervous system controlling involuntary actions has two divisions, sympathetic and parasympathetic.
There are no such divisions.
Stimuli. They occur in response to internal stimuli.
They operate against harmful stimuli which are generally external.
Comparisons and Differences between Movement in Sensitive Plant and Movement in Legs?
Movement in Sensitive Plant
Movement in Legs
Stimulus. It occurs in response to an external stimulus like touch and shock.
It occurs in response to our requirement determined by will.
Nerves. No nerves are involved.
Nerves carry the message for movement of legs.
Movement. It is brought about by turgor changes in specific cells.
It is brought about by bending and strainghtening of legs with the help of muscles that contract and relax