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DAV CLASS 8 Agriculture Social Science Question and Answers
Something to do.
A. Tick (✓) the correct option .
1. Millets are also known as –
Ans ) (d) coarse grains
2. Tea is a –
Ans) (d) beverage crop
3. Who amongst the following are the nomadic herders of the Himalayan area?
Ans) (a) Bhotiyas
4. Slash and burn practice of agriculture is also known as –
Ans) (c) shifting agriculture
5. The type of commercial agriculture, which is practised on a large estate for growing of a single crop continuously for several years, is known as –
Ans) (c) plantation agriculture
B. Fill in the blanks
1. Wheat is grown in the mid-latitudinal and dry subtropical regions.
2. Cotton, Jute and natural silk are natural fibres.
3. Coffee plant needs hot and humid climate.
4. Deltas, river valleys, coastal plains with rainfall above 100 cm are ideal for the cultivation of rice.
5. When animals are reared along with the cultivation of land, it is known as mixed farming.
C. Write a technical term or an appropriate word for each of the following statement :
1. The science and art of raising crops. rearing of livestock, forestry and fishing.
2. A type of agricultural system in which a farmer and his family grow crop for self-sustenance.
Ans) Subsistence agriculture
3. Agriculture practised on a very large scale for crop specialisation.
Ans) Commercial agriculture
4. The commercial grazing of farm animals in temperate grasslands to obtain meat, wool, hides, skins and some dairy products.
Ans) Livestock ranching
5. People who migrate along with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder for their animals.
D. Answer the following questions in brief.
1. When and how did agriculture start along the river valleys? What is the wider definition of agriculture now?
Ans 1. The requirement for food has led to the development of agriculture. Earlier, human beings were dependent upon food gathering, hunting and fishing for their survival. Gradually, they started growing crops along the river valleys which led to the beginning of agriculture. In wider terms, agriculture is the science and art of raising crops, rearing livestock, forestry and fishing.
2. Highlight the importance of agriculture for people around the world.
Ans 2. Agriculture helps in providing employment, eradicating poverty, enhancing trade and earning foreign exchange. Agriculture also plays an important role in strengthening global relations by encouraging the international trade of agricultural products.
3. Describe any three new techniques used in agriculture to increase the production of crops.
Ans 3. New techniques of agriculture include using HYV of seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, insecticides and modern equipment.
4. What type of soil, temperature and rainfall is required for the cultivation of wheat and rice?
Ans 4. Wheat
Soil type: Loamy soil is required.
Temperature: The ideal temperature for wheat at the time for sowing is 10°-15°C and at the time of harvesting is 20°-25°C.
Rainfall: It grows well in 75-100 cm of rainfall. The harvest period should be frost-free.
Soil type: Alluvial loamy and clayey soils are ideal for rice cultivation.
Temperature: 24°C or above with minor variations during sowing, growing and harvesting seasons.
Rainfall: Rice flourishes well in areas where rainfall is above 100 cm.
5. What is meant by nomadic herding? Which are the most important regions for nomadic herding?
Ans. In nomadic herding, people migrate along with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder for their animals. Generally, they rear cattle, sheep, goats, camels and yaks for milk, skin, meat and wool. It is common in parts of Central and Western Asia, East and South-West Africa and Northern Eurasia. In India, Bhotiyas and Gujjars are the nomadic tribes of Himalays.
E. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the major differences between the farm agriculture of USA and India?
Ans. The agricultural practices of the USA and India sharply differ from one another. These differences are given below:
|A Farm in the USA
|A Farm in India
|(i) Size of farm
|Large farm but yield per hectare is comparatively low.
|Small land holding but yield per hectare is high.
|High capital investment
|Comparatively low capital investment which is mainly narrowed from banks, moneylenders.
|Produce is meant for the national and international markets as storage facilities are adequate.
|Produce is meant for local market due to lack of storage facilities.
|Extensive use of tractors combined harvesters and threshers.
|Traditonal methods, limited use of machines, still using bullocks to plough the field.
|Extensive use of advanced technology
|Marginal use of modern technology.
2. Describe any five advantages of using biotechnology for agricultural development.
Ans 2. (i) Biotechnology involves the use of living organisms and bio-processes in engineering, technology, medicine, etc.
(ii) It also covers genetic engineering, cell and tissue, culture technologies, manufacture of drugs, environmental management, etc.
(iii) Some countries have developed genetically modified crops through biotechnology. In this, higher yields are produced by introducing foreign genes from different species.
(iv) It has more nutritional value, better flavour and colour in the food.
(v) Using these genetically modified crops is still limited. Scientists believe that genetically modified crops can help the environment by reducing the problem of pesticides.
3. Explain any three physical factors influencing the agricultural development in an area.
Ans 3. Three physical factors which affect agricultural development in an area are:
(a) Physical or geographical factors include relief, climate and soul.
(i) Relief: Plains are more suitable for agriculture than the highlands. The density of population is generally high in plains. This helps in providing cheap labour and a market for farm products. Also, it is easier to use modern equipment in plain regions. On rugged topography, such machines cannot be easily used. The river basins and deltas are more suitable for agriculture than mountainous regions.
(ii) Climate: Agriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability. Each crop has its own requirement of temperature and rainfall. That is why the variation in climatic conditions supports different crop patterns.
(iii) Soil: Soil rich in minerals and organic matter supports agriculture. The chemical composition and fertility of soil differ from place to place which leads to variation in soil type. Each crop has its own requirement of soil. According to the soil type, a large variety of crops are grown in different parts of the world. Alluvial soil and black soil are very suitable for agriculture.
4. How is subsistence agriculture difference from the commercial agriculture? In your opinion, which one is more useful for India?
|(i) In subsistence farming, farmers use low levels of technology and household labour and grow crops for self-sustenance.
|(i) In commercial farming farmers use all modern technology of agriculture to obtain maximum production from a limited area.
|(ii) It is practised solely to meet the needs of the farmer’s family.
|(ii) In this type of agriculture, crops are raised on a large scale for the purpose of selling the products in the market.
|(iii) A small area is cultivated and therefore no huge capital is needed in this farming.
|(iii) A large area is cultivated and huge capital is involved in this farming.
Commercial agriculture is more useful for India because it is always done with defined crops, technology and marketing prospects.
5. How do the size of land holdings, labour and capital influence the agricultural development in an area? Explain.
Ans 5. Size of land holdings: The size of farms affects the agricultural pattern and the yield per unit hectare. In the densely populated areas of the developing countries, the farm size is generally very small due to growing rural population and the law of succession which leads to fragmentation of land. The small fields are mostly not economical.
Labour: The availability of labour has a great influence on the cropping pattern of a region. The labour requirement varies with different crops. In many parts of India, seasonal unemployment exists in rural areas, whereas during the periods of sowing and harvesting, there could be a shortage of labour. The farmers of Punjab greatly depend on migrant labourers for growing wheat and rice crops.
Capital: All agricultural inputs, like the HYV seeds, means of irrigation, fertilisers, pesticides, hiring labour, machines, land lease, fodder, fuel, power and veterinary services, require capital. The cultivation of commercial crops using new technologies requires more capital than required in the traditional way of cultivation.