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DAV CLASS 8 Human Resources Social Science Question and Answers
A. Tick (✓) the correct option:
A. Tick (✓) the correct option.
1. Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?
Ans) (c) The Ganga Valley
2. Out of every 100 people in the world –
Ans) (b) 16 people live in Africa.
3. Which one of the following is false?
Ans) (a) It took just about 111 years for the world population to rise from 1.5 billion to 7 billion.
4. Which one of the following states has the highest density of population in India
Ans) (a) Bihar
5. Which one of the following age groups. represent the productive population ?
Ans) (a) 15 to 59 years
B. Fill in the blanks.
1. India ranks second in population next to China, in the world.
2. Number of children below 15 years and adults above 59 years is defined dependent population.
3. The growth of population is affected by its birth rate, death rate and migration.
4. The important attributes of population composition are sex ratio, age structure and literacy rate.
5. In India, almost half of the population resides in the five states of India, i.e., Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
C. Write True or False for the following statements.
|1. The total population of the world has crossed 10 billion mark in the year 2011.
|2. The sex ratio of India in 2011 was 943.
|3. The density of population is the number of persons per square kilometre of an area.
|4. The natural growth rate of the population is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate.
|5. Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in industries, agriculture and means of transport.
D. Answer the following questions in brief.
1. What is meant by the growth rate of population?
Ans 1. The net change in population between two fixed periods of time expressed in percentage is called the growth rate of population.
2. What are the three important attributes of population composition?
Ans 2. Three important attributes of population composition are age structure, sex ratio and literacy rate.
3. What makes the human being the most valuable resource?
Ans 3. Human beings who are healthy, educated, and mentally strong can prove to be useful for a country or community and are treated as the most valuable resource.
4. Which regions of the world have high concentration of population and why?
Ans 4. Fertile lowlands of Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Hwang-ho in China, the Nile in Egypt, Mississippi in the USA, Tigris in Iraq and several other plain regions where a high concentration of population is found because their transportation facilities are good and rivers are navigable.
5. Highlight the characteristics of the sparsely population regions of the world.
Ans 5. The mountain ranges of the Andes, Himalayas, Plateaus and Rockies of Tibet are sparsely populated. Here, the transportation is very difficult and the living conditions are not very favourable due to high mountains, rugged terrain and rocky plateau.
E. Answer the following questions.
1. Explain relief and climate as factors affecting the distribution of population.
Ans 1. (i) Relief: High mountains, rugged terrain and rocky plateau restrict human settlement. Transportation is very difficult and the living conditions are not very favourable. The mountains ranges of the Andes, Himalayas, Plateaus Rockies of Tibet are sparsely populated. On the other hand, plain areas of the world are the most favourable places for human habitation. Plains are good for agricultural and industrial activities in the world.
(ii) Climate: People prefer to live in regions where temperature and rainfall are moderate. Excessive heat, cold, dryness or wetness cause discomfort. Hot and humid areas of the equatorial region, cold desert of Siberia, hot desert of Sahara are the areas that are sparsely populated. On the other hand, favourable climatic conditions in the monsoon regions of India and Bangladesh attract a large concentration of population.
2. How do minerals and industries affect the distribution of population? Explain.
Ans 2. (i) Minerals: The presence of minerals like coal and iron ore in different parts of the world has attracted a huge population in these areas because these minerals are required for the iron and steel industry. Hot and dry areas of Australian deserts, Saudi Arabia and South Africa have attracted large groups of migrants because of the availability of petroleum.
(ii) Industries: The development of industries in any region has a very favourable impact on employment opportunities. Industrial hubs attract people from far-off places.
3. What is meant by literacy rate? Why is it considered an important indicator in population composition?
Ans 3. The literacy rate is the percentage of people who can read and write in a certain country. The literacy rate varies from country and from rural to urban population in the same country. It is more among male than the female population, more in urban areas than in rural areas. The literacy rate of any country is considered an important indicator of population composition as it affects the socio-economic development of a nation.
4. Define sex ratio. What are the reasons for the declining sex ratio in India?
Ans 4. Sex ratio: It is a ratio between the number of females and males in a population. It is expressed as number of females per thousand males. It has been observed that in European countries, the number of females is more than males. Thus, Europe has a high of favourable sex ratio. The rising sex ratio has been recorded since the early 1980s and has since then continued to increase with no signs, of reversing. In India, the sex ratio was recorded as 943 in 2011 which has declined from 972 as recorded in 1901.
Sex ratio in India is declining due to several reasons—
• Preference for male child due to social, economic and religious reasons.
• Infant mortality is higher among girls than among boys because of lack of proper medical facilities.
• General neglect of female children during childhood is largely responsible for high female mortality rate.
• Pre-natal sex determination tests, in spite of ban, continue to large scale practice of female foeticide.
5. Which states of India have high density of population and why? Suggest ways and means to check it.
Ans 5. In India, Bihar (1102), West Bengal (1029), Kerala (859), Uttar Pradesh (828) are some of the states that have a high density of population. Favourable climatic conditions, good transportation facilities and a high level of industrialisation has led to rapid urbanisation in these states. Also, rich fertile soil, an abundance of water and well-developed agriculture have brought a high density of population in these states.