DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Solutions

DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Solutions: Students who are looking for DAV Social Science Books Solutions then you are in right place, we have discussed the solution of Social Science class 8 book chapter 21 Safeguarding the Marginalised followed in all DAV Schools. Solutions are given below with proper Explanation please bookmark our website for further updates!

DAV CLASS 8 Social Justice and the Marginalised Question and Answers

Something to Know

A. Tick (✓) the correct option.

1. Who among the following does not belong to economically and socially disadvantaged communities of India?

Ans 1. (d) traders

2. ‘Bishnois’, a tribal community lives in—

Ans 2. (b) Rajasthan

3. A traditional Islamic educational institution is called a—

Ans 3. (c) madarsa

4. Which one of the following factors does not make a successful democracy?

Ans 4. (a) biased public opinion

5. Which one of the following words does not find a mention in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution?

Ans 5. (c) Harmony

Fill in the blanks.

1. India is a sovereign and secular democracy.

2. Economically and socially disadvantaged communities of India are known as marginalised groups.

3. The end of tribals’ traditional lifestyle had resulted in marginalisation and exploitation.

4. The idea behind the reservation in educational institutions is to increase the diversity of representation and to bring about social equality in India.

5. The better educated and wealthier sections of the Backward Classes are called the creamy layer

C. Match the following.

Column IColumn II (Answer)
1. The spiritual mentor of the Bishnois(d) Jambeshwarii
2. A term used for the Adivasis in the Constitution(a) Scheduled Tribes
3. Equality of status and opportunity(e) Right to Freedom
4. Anglo-Indians(b) A minority community
5. Second Backward Classes Commission(c) B.P. Mandal

Ans. 1. (d), 2. (a), 3. (e), 4. (b), 5. (c)

D. Answer the following questions in brief.

1. Mention any three elements which are essential for making a successful democracy.

Ans 1. Social justice, individual rights, equality of opportunity and public participation in decision-making, make a successful democracy.

2. Which communities come under Other Backward Classes (OBCs)? Who identified them and how?

Ans 2. The communities under OBCs mainly comprise of small cultivators, agricultural labourers, artisans, people engaged in weaving, fishing, construction work, etc.

They were listed as OBC on the recommendation of the Second Backward Classes Commission under the Chairmanship of B.P. Mandal in 1978.

3. Explain the term ‘Creamy layer’. Why should they be not given benefit of reservation?

Ans 3. The term ‘Creamy layer’ is used for the relatively wealthier and better-educated members of the Backward Classes. It is argued that they should not continue to avail the benefits of reservation as they are rich and educated.

4. Highlight two values that we can learn from the Bishnois with respect to the environment.

Ans 4. The Bishnoi conservationists take care of nature and live in harmony with it, instead of exploiting it. They have contributed more to the environment and wildlife protection than the entire country put together.

5. Why was the provision of reservation included in the Indian Constitution? Who are the beneficiaries of this policy and how?

Ans 5. The Constitution framers included the provision of reservation to uplift historically oppressed and marginalised sections of society, who were denied respect and equality. Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and OBCs are the beneficiaries of this policy. Under this policy, a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, Union and State Civil Services, Union and State departments and in all public and private educational institutions.

E. Answer the following questions.

1. Compare the conditions of the Adivasis of India during pre and post-independence era.

Ans 1. Adivasi groups have always been discriminated in the pre and post-independence era. The forests in which the Adivasis lived were taken away from them in the name of development during the British period. As a result, they became landless and homeless. Many Adivasis protests and revolts occurred during the colonial era against exploitation. But they were quickly suppressed by the British in a merciless manner to discourage any future revolts. Even in the post-independence era, Adivasi groups faced discrimination at the hands of the government, the industrialists and many other powerful forces. The forests in which they lived were cleared gradually for timber, agriculture, mining projects or for wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, etc. This has resulted in problems, such as poverty, illiteracy, indebtedness, bondage, exploitation, disease and unemployment, etc., among the tribals.

2. The Bishnoi conservationists take care of nature and grow with it, instead of exploiting it.’ Explain the statement.

Ans 2. For the Bishnois, a tribal community of Rajasthan, the preservation of animals and vegetation has been a religion to them since the fifteenth century. Their spiritual mentor, Jambeshwarji formulated 29 tenets – Bis (twenty) + noi (nine). This is the origin of their name. The tenets are related to personal hygiene, maintaining good basic health, healthy social behaviour and worship of God. Their religion bans animal killing, felling green trees and directs them to protect life in all forms. The Bishnoi conservationists take care of nature and live in harmony with it, instead of exploiting it. They have contributed more to the environment and wildlife protection than the entire country put together.

3. Explain the term ‘minorities’. Why do they lag behind the majority community, both educationally and economically? How can they get their rightful place in society?

Ans 3. On the basis of race, religion or language, the number of Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, Anglo-Indians is much less than the majority community and hence, they are known as minorities. Muslims are the largest single minority community in India. Minorities lag behind the majority community, both educationally and economically. A large part of the Muslim population suffers from backwardness due to abstaining from mainstream education and opting for traditional education, which is primarily religious. Many Muslim parents still prefer to send their children to a traditional Islamic educational institution, called madarsa, and not for modem education.

The government has launched many schemes for their welfare but they are disenchanted with them as the schemes have provided more money-making opportunities to the rich and higher castes. Sometimes, the best of the economic opportunities are reserved for the majority while the minorities are forced to continue with their hereditary occupations of menial jobs which paid them very little money. The minorities have to be provided their rightful place. They have to be protected from being dominated as well as discriminated. Sometimes a minority community may feel threatened by the majority community, which gives rise to insecurity and disharmony. The development can continue only when each and every Indian joins hands and the national interest wins over individual interest. Keeping this in mind—

(i) The Ministry of Minority Affairs has launched several schemes for the welfare of the minorities and safeguards their rights.

(ii) Fundamental Rights such as Right to Freedom of Religion and Cultural and Educational Rights protect the minorities and give them the right to preserve their religion, culture and language.

4. Suggest any five measures that can be taken for the upliftment of the downtrodden in a democracy.

Ans 4. To provide social justice and to end inequalities in society the following measures can be taken:

(i) Providing facilities for free and quality education.

(ii) Providing an administration free of corruption.

(iii) Providing financial help in the form of loans and grants.

(iv) Setting up an efficient healthcare system for the masses.

(v) Setting up different welfare departments for them.

(vi) Increasing employment opportunities.

5. What is meant by political safeguards? Who are the beneficiaries of this policy? How far is such a safeguard justified?

Ans. The underprivileged and marginalised sections of society need to be given equal opportunity in nation-building activities. So reserving seats for them in legislatures acts as a safeguard of their political rights. As a political safeguard, seats in the Lok Sabha, State Assemblies, Panchayats and Municipalities are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population. But still, they are deprived of the benefits of development and continue to suffer due to social and educational backwardness. They cannot be isolated and forced to live on the fringes. On the other hand, minorities have to cooperate and live in harmony. They need to emphasise that they are a part of the whole. This will strengthen the composite culture of India.

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