DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Chapter 11 Solutions

DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Solutions: Students who are looking for DAV Social Science Books Solutions then you are in right place, we have discussed the solution of Social Science class 8 book chapter 11 The First War of Independence-1857 in all DAV Schools. Solutions are given below with proper Explanation please bookmark our website for further updates!!

DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Chapter 11 Solutions

DAV CLASS 8 | The First War of Independence-1857 Science Question and Answers

Something to Know

A. Tick (✓) the correct option.

1. The Revolt of 1857 started on—

Ans 1. (a) May 10, 1857

2. Mangal Pandey belonged to which one of the following places?

Ans 2. (c) Barrackpore

3. Who took over the governance of India from the East India Company after his 1857 revolt?

Ans 3. (a) The British Parliament

4. The British army was reogranised after the Revolt of 1857 to

Ans 4. (d) prevent future revolts.

5. The practice for looking down upon the Blacks is known as—

Ans 5. (c) racial discrimination

B. Fill in the blanks.

1. The first War of Independence is also known as the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857.

2. The British considered themselves superiors.

3. Bhadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon.

4. Rani Laxmi Bai wanted her lost kingdom.

5. The Doctrine of Lapse created resentment among Indian rulers.

C. Write True or False for the following statements.

QuestionsAnswer (True/False)
1. Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed the Shahanshah-e-Hindustan.True
2. At Kanpur, the revolt was led by Begum Hazrat Mahal.False
3. The British followed a policy of racial discrimination.True
4. The regiment in Meerut recalled on May 10, 1857.True
5. A secretary of State was appointed to look after the governance of England.False

D. Answer the following briefly.

1. The revolt of 1857 was the landmark in the history of India’s struggle for independence. Justify the statement with any three arguments.

Ans 1. The Revolt of 1857 was the landmark in the history of India’s struggle for freedom.

(i) The revolt soon spread to different parts of country after many sepoy started it against the East India Company.

(ii) Many sections of the society like peasants, artisans, soldiers, educated Indians and many Indian rulers joined hands to fight against the Britishers.

(iii) Hindus and Muslims also came together to oppose British rulers.

2. What was the doctrine of Lapse and how did it affect the rulers of India?

Ans 2. The Doctrine of Lapse was a policy of annexation introduced by Lord Dalhousie in 1848 and continued till 1856. The doctrine declared that if any Indian ruler died without leaving behind a natural heir to the throne, his kingdom automatically became a part of the British territory. Several kingdoms like Satara, Sambalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur, Jhansi and Awadh were annexed by applying this doctrine. This doctrine created fear and resentment among the Indian kings.

3. Explain subsidiary alliances with the help of examples.

Ans 3. Subsidiary Alliance was a treaty signed by the British with Awardh in 1801. The Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was compelled to accept the permanent British army within the territory and to pay a subsidy for its maintenance. he could not recruit any other European in his service without prior approval. He had to station a Resident in his court, which reduced the power of the Nawab. Gradually, the Indians lost all trust in the British. Awadh had been an ally of the East Indian Company for nearly a century. Still it was annexed on the plea that the government was not functioning properly. The Nawab was exiled to Calcutta. Begum Hazrat Mahal took over the reign of Awadh. This shocked the other rulers.

4. How did the economic policies of the British adversely affect the Indian economy?

Ans 4. Indian economy was greatly affected by the economic policy of the British.

(i) The Zamindari system exploited the peasants.

(ii) The peasants were forced to grow only those crops which were required by the British industries.

(iii) British goods like textiles overtook the Indian markets. These things made artisans and peasants unemployed.

5. Why is Revolt of 1857 called the First War of Independence? What were its immediate causes?

Ans 5. The Revolt of 1857 is known as the First War of Independence as it was the first time in Indian history that different sections of Indian society united and fought as one nation to throw off the foreign British rulers. The cartridges of the new Enfield rifle had a greased paper cover which had to be bitten off before the cartridge was loaded into the rifle. The grease was composed of beef and pig fat. Both the Hindus and Muslims refused to use them. Mangal Pandey, a young Indian Sepoy from Bengal Regiment, was the first to refuse it. He not only refused to use the greased cartridge but also shot down his sergeant. He was arrested, tried and executed. The revolt started at other places as soon as this news spread.

E. Answer the following questions:

1. Describe the course of the Revolt of 1857.

Ans 1. The revolt of 1857 was started by the Indian soldiers and it soon spread to different parts of the country. The regiments in Meerut marched to Delhi and there Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar supported the rebellion. It gave courage and confidence to act. Local leaders, zamindars and chiefs fought valiantly. Nana Saheb in Kanpur, Tantya Tope in Bithul, Begum Hazrat Mahal in Awadh, Rani Laxmi Bai in Jhansi and many more took an active part in organising the uprising against the British. The Revolt also spread to Bareily, Agra, Benaras and other places. Many groups were there who did not join the revolt like Sikhs in Punjab, Nizam of Hyderabad, Madras and Bombay Regiment.

2. Describe five main causes of the First War of Independence.

Ans 2. The main causes of First War of Independence are:

(i) The Indian soldiers were dissatisfied with the treatment meted out to them. They were unhappy about their pay, allowances and conditions of service. Some of the new rules of the company violated their religious sentiment and beliefs.

(ii) Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation created fear and resentment among Indian rulers. They were not allowed to adopt heir to the throne. The policy ensured that those kingdoms where the kings did not have natural heirs, would be taken over by the British after the demise of the king.

(iii) The zamandari system exploited the peasants who were forced to grow only those crops that the British industries required. This angered the peasants. British goods also flooded the market that made the artisans unemployed.

(iv) Many Indians opposed the introduction of western education and the conversion of Indians to Christianity. The Hindu law of property was changed to enable a Christian convert to receive Christanity.

(v) The immediate cause of the revolt was the cartridges of the new Enfield rifle. It had a greased paper cover which had to be bitten off before the cartridge was loaded into the rifle. It was suspected of being coated with the fat of cows and pigs. Both Hindus and Muslims refused to use them. Mangal Pandey, an Indian Sepoy refused to use the greased cartridge but also shot down his sergeant. When this news spread, many sepoys started the revolt.

3. What steps did the British take to suppress the Revolt.

Ans 3. Though the Revolt spread far and wide but the Britishers were able to supress the revolt by many ways.

(i) The British military officers freed Delhi, the epicentre of the Revolt, from the rebels. The Kashmiri Gate was blown up. Hundreds of people were killed.

(ii) Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried for treason and exiled to Rangoon.

(iii) Lucknow was recaptured in 1858. Rani Lakshmi Bai was killed in the battle and Tantya Tope was captured, put on trial and exceuted. Thus, the British finally suppressed the massive force of popular rebellion.

4. Why did the First War of Independence fail inspite of the participation of different sections of Indian Society? Explain.

Ans 4. The First War of Independence was a great event because people from different sections of the society took an active part in it. But it was effectively suppressed by the Britishers. There were several reasons behind its failure.

(i) The revolt had been planned for months but it broke out before the appointed date. It did not go according to the plan.

(ii) There was no unity among the rebels. Their motives was not the nationalism but they fought for their own self-interest. The sepoys of Bengal wanted to revive the glory of the Mughals, while Nana Sahab and Tantya Tope tried to re-establish the Maratha power and Rani Laxmi Bai fought for her lost Kingdom.

(iii) The revolt was limited to North and Central India. In the North, the Sikhs, the Nizams and the Scindias were unaffected by the revolt and the Gurkhas still remained loyal to the Britishers.

(iv) The rebels lacked the modern weapons and the disciplined army.

(v) The leadership of the Revolt was very weak. The Indian rulers fought to liberate their own territories and did not think about the freedom of the entire country.

5. What changes were made in the administration of India after the Revolt was suppressed?

Ans 5. After the revolt, the British authority in India made some changes in their policies for the re-establishment.

(i) The rule of the East India company ended. The British crown took over the administration.

(ii) A secretary of State was appointed by the British Parliament to look after the governance of India with the help of a council.

(iii) The Governor-General was given the title of Viceroy—which was the representative of the British Crown.

(iv) The British reorganised the army to prevent any future revolts.

(v) The policy of annexations of Indian territories was given up. The Indian princes were granted the right of adoption.

(vi) Full religious freedom was guaranteed to the Indians.

(vii) Indians were also given the assurance that high posts would be given to them without any discrimination.

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