DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Chapter 10 Solutions

Students who are looking for DAV class 8 Social Science Chapter 10 Solutions then you are in right place, we have discussed the solution of Social Science class 8 book chapter 10 Colonialism: Rural and Tribal Societies in all DAV Schools. Solutions are given below with proper Explanation please bookmark our website for further updates!!

DAV CLASS 8 Social Science Chapter 10 Solutions

DAV CLASS 8 | Colonialism: Rural and Tribal Societies Science Question and Answers

A. Tick (✓) the correct option:

1. Under the Mahalwari System, the word mahal means—

Ans. (b) a group of villages.

2. The Ryotwari System was introduced by—

Ans. (c) Thomas Munro

3. The other name for Zamindari Bandobast was—

Ans. (a) Permanent Revenue System

4. Who was the leader of the Santhals’ revolt?

Ans. (b) Sindhu and Kanhu Murmu

5. Where did Industrial Revolution begin first?

Ans. (a) England

B. Fill in the blanks.

1. English shattered the self-sufficient rural economy.

2. Many tribals left forests in search of livelihood.

3. Zamindari System was introduced in Bengal by Lord Cornwallis.

4. Land revenue was the biggest source of income for the Company.

5. Basic or Key industry started in India after independence.

C. Write True or False for the following statements.

1. Before the advent of East India Company, the rural life in India was simple and self-sufficient.

2. The British wanted to smuggle and sell opium in Spain to earn profit.

3. Kisan Sabhas were formed in 1930 to support the cause of peasants.

4. The khonds of Orissa practised shifting agriculture.

5. The tribal chiefs lost all their powers and were forced to follow the laws made by the British officers in India.

Ans. 1. True, 2. False, 3. True, 3. True, 4. True, 5. True

D. Answer the following questions in brief.

1. Highlight the main features of the Mahalwari System.

Ans. Mahalwari System: In this system, the settlement was made collectively, with a group of villagers called mahaL Since the land, the forests and the pastures belonged to the village community, the villages were jointly responsible for the payment of land revenue. It was levied on the produce of a mahal.

2. Why did the British force Indian farmers to grow commercial crops?

Ans. The East India Company wanted to collect maximum taxes to meet their military and administrative expenses. They also wanted to gain maximum profit. So, the company started using coercive methods to procure goods which were in great demand in Europe. They purchased raw material at low rates and sent to England. The finished goods were brought back to India and sold at high prices to earn more profits. The Company forced the farmers to grow crops like indigo, cotton, raw silk, opium, pepper, tea, sugarcane, etc.

3. What was the impact of colonial rule on the tribals of India? Mention any three.

Ans. The British rule badly affected the life of the tribals:

(i) Almost every tribe had a tribal chief. But under the British rule, the chief lost all power and were forced to follow the laws made by the British officers in India.

(ii) The Britishers did not like shifting cultivation. When the tribals forced them to allow them to continue this system, they (Britishers) made several changes in the forest laws which made the tribal life very difficult. Most of the forests were declared as the state property. Many tribals had to move to other areas in search of livelihood.

(iii) During the nineteenth century, when the demand for the forest produce increased, the traders and the moneylenders took advantage of the situation. They went to the tribals and offered them cash loans. They also asked them to work on wages. By offering cash loans they trapped the innocent tribals in their net which proved very oppressive.

(iv) Many tribals were out of work. A large number of them were recruited through contractors to work in the tea plantations in far off areas of Assam. They were paid low wages and were not allowed to go back home. Many tribals were also recruited in factories and fields to work under very harsh conditions. (Any three)

4. Write short notes on the Birsa Movement.

Ans. Birsa was born in the mid-1870s in a family of Mundas, a tribal group that lived in Chhotanagpur. In 1895, Birsa Munda emerged as a hero of the tribals. He urged them to work on their land to earn their living. This would end their sufferings. Slowly and steadily, the Birsa movement became popular. Birsa told his people that land policies of the British were destroying their traditional land system. Birsa was jailed for two years but on his release, he instigated the tribals to attack zamindars. He raised the white flag as a symbol of Birsa Raj. The movement ended in 1900 with the death of Birsa.

5. Highlight any three changes that took place in modern industries in the nineteenth century.

Ans. (i) Industries like cotton, jute, iron and steel developed at a fast rate. For example, the expansion of railways, the demand for coal, iron and steel increased.

(ii) With the passage of time, the cement, chemical and sugar industries also developed.

(iii) Tea became the biggest plantation industry in Assam, Bengal and South India. Other plantation industries were coffee, cinchona and rubber.

E. Answer the following questions

1. List the main features of Permanent Settlement. How did the production of opium, indigo and sugar shot up the profit margins of the East India Company?

Ans. The main features of Permanent settlement:

(i) Zamindari was made a hereditary right of the zamindars and the permanent settlement or the Zamindari Bandobast.

(ii) They were made the owners of the land.

(iii) They were forced to pay 89% of the total revenue to the British government. Their own share was 11%. The East India Company sold opium in China and earned huge profits. Indigo was in great demand in the textile industries of Britain. The peasants were forced to cultivate indigo plants to extract blue dye. But they were never paid just prices. Similarly, sugar was also in great demand in the West. Hence, many Europeans set up sugar plantations in India. Again, the fanners were the sufferers. They had to produce sugar at a very low price. Thus, the British industries flourished at the cost of the Indian industries.

2. Differentiate between Ryotwari and Mahalwari system.

Ans. (i) The Ryotwari system was introduced in 1820 in the South and West of India. The Mahalwari system was introduced in 1822 in Gangetic Valley, North-West provinces, Central India and Punjab.

(ii) In the Ryotwari system, a direct settlement was made between the government and the ryots or cultivators. Under the Mahalwari system, a settlement was made collectively, with a group of villages called mahal

(iii) In the Ryotwari system, the revenue was directly collected from the cultivator. Under the Mahalwari system, the villagers were jointly responsible for the payment of land revenue.

3. How did colonialism systematically destroy Indian crafts and industries? Explain.

Ans. Before the company monopolised trade, India was very rich in handicrafts, calica, muslin, wool and silk products. Metal works of iron, steel, copper, brass, gold and silver were also in great demand. In the seventeenth century, trade with European nations was in favour of India as we exported large quantities of fine cotton, silk fabrics, spices, indigo, drugs, precious stones and handicrafts.

But the company’s policy systematically destroyed crafts, cottage industries and artisanship of India.

(i) To safeguard the British cotton industry, Indian silk and cotton textiles were destroyed with imposition of very heavy duty on Indian goods, promotion of British machine-made articles at cheaper rates and decrease in the princely patronage.

(ii) The British brought changes in their trade policies which forced the Indian craftsmen and artisans to give up their traditional livelihood.

(iii) The industrial revolution in Britain and other European countries also played a major role in destroying the Indian industries.

4. How far were British agrarian and tribal policies responsible for widespread discontentment in India?

Ans. Before the advent of the East India Company, the Indian rural life was simple and sufficient. The British brought many changes in the field of land revenue system, agriculture, trade, industry and administration to guard their own interest. They devised various methods to ensure the collection of revenue from Indian territories arranged by them. With the passage of time the British empire expanded. As a result, the amount of revenue also increased. The company found land revenue the biggest source of income. Hence it introduced several Land Revenue Settlements such as Zamindari System under the Permanent Settlement, Ryotwari System, Mahalwari System etc. All these systems proved oppressive to the farmers. The Zamindari System empowered the zamindars so much so that they began to use oppressive methods to collect taxes from the cultivators. They had the power to evict any cultivator of the soil due to non-payment of revenue. The Ryotwari and Mahalwari Systems only added miseries to the fanners’ life. The next target of the company was the tribals of India, who lived in deep forests and led a life of self-sufficiency. But the company made their life very difficult by introducing several changes in the forest laws. Most of the forests were declared as the state property. Many tribals had to move to other areas in search of livelihoods. The commercialisation of agriculture and exploitation of forest wealth made many tribals homeless and jobless. The unjust policies of the British resulted in rebellions by tribals in different parts of India.

5. Describe any five revolts by the tribals against the British.

Ans. (i) Revolt by the Khasis, who lived in the Khasi hills of north-west Assam, took place in 1829. The construction of a road through their land united many Khasi chiefs against the English under the leadership of Bar Manik and Tirut Singh. But the British suppressed their rebellion brutally.

(ii) The Kukis of hilly regions of Manipur continued attacking the British territories from 1829. But they were forced to surrender in 1850.

(iii) The Khonds of Khondmals (near Orissa) revolted against the British in 1846 due to the fear of being annexed. But they could not stand before the might of Britishers.

(iv) The Santhals found themselves quite helpless against the ruthless exploitation and oppression of the traders and the middlemen. They were expecting the British government to safeguard their interests. When nothing was done, they revolted against the Britishers in 1855 to
1856 under the leadership of Sindhu and Kanhu Murmu.

(v) Mundas of Chotanagpur, joined by the Kokarian tribe of the same region, revolted in 1831. The struggle was suppressed by the British forces. But the exploitation by the merchants and the moneylenders continued. In 1895, Birsa Munda, a young boy, emerged as hero of tribals. He urged them to continue to work on their own land to earn their living and not to move away. This would end all their sufferings.

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